Throughout the s, in his notebooks, Nietzsche developed a theory of the "eternal recurrence of the same" and much speculation on the physical possibility of this idea and the mechanics of its actualization occur in his later notebooks. Here, the will to power as a potential physics is integrated with the postulated eternal recurrence. Taken literally as a theory for how things are, Nietzsche appears to imagine a physical universe of perpetual struggle and force that repeatedly completes its cycle and returns to the beginning.
Some scholars believe that Nietzsche used the concept of eternal recurrence metaphorically. But others, such as Paul Loeb, have argued that "Nietzsche did indeed believe in the truth of cosmological eternal recurrence. In contemporary Nietzschean scholarship, some interpreters [ who?
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However, in Nietzsche's unpublished notes later published by his sister as "The Will to Power" , Nietzsche sometimes seemed to view the will to power as a more metaphysical general force underlying all reality, not just human behavior—thus making it more directly analogous to Schopenhauer's will to live. For example, Nietzsche claims the " world is the will to power—and nothing besides! Some interpreters also upheld a biological interpretation of the Wille zur Macht , making it equivalent with some kind of social Darwinism.